World War I

26 04 2009

photo_lg_iraq

During World War I the Ottomans were driven from much of the area by the United Kingdom during the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire. The British lost 92,000 soldiers in the Mesopotamian campaign. Ottoman losses are unknown but the British captured a total of 45,000 prisoners of war. By the end of 1918 the British had deployed 410,000 men in the area, though only 112,000 were combat troops.

During World War I the British and French divided Western Asia in the Sykes-Picot Agreement. The Treaty of Sèvres, which was ratified in the Treaty of Lausanne, led to the advent of modern Western Asia and Republic of Turkey. The League of Nations granted France mandates over Syria and Lebanon and granted the United Kingdom mandates over Iraq and Palestine (which then consisted of two autonomous regions: Palestine and Transjordan). Parts of the Ottoman Empire on the Arabian Peninsula became parts of what are today Saudi Arabia and Yemen.





Cuisine

21 01 2009

The Iraqi cuisine is generally a not heavy cuisine with more spices than most Arab cuisines. Iraq’s main food crops include wheat, barley, rice, vegetables, and dates. Vegetables include eggplant, okra, potatoes, and tomatoes. Beans such as chickpeas and lentils are also quite common. Common meats in Iraqi cooking are lamb and beef; fish and poultry are also used. Soups and stews are often prepared and served with rice and vegetables. Although Iraq is not a coastal area, the population is used to consuming fish, however, freshwater fish is more common than saltwater fish. Masgouf is one of the most popular dishes. Biryani, although influenced by Indian cuisine, is much milder with a different mixture of spices and a wider variety of vegetables including potatoes, peas, carrots and onions among others. Dolma is also one of the popular dishes. The Iraqi cuisine is famous for its extremely tender kabab as well as its tikka. A wide variety of spices, pickles and Amba are also extensively used.





2003 invasion and U.S. occupation of Iraq

10 12 2008
Since 2002, the United States using niepotwierdzonymi yet claims of Iraq’s possession of WMD, led preparations for the next strike on Iraq. Facing the threat of war, President Hussein agreed to the return of UN inspectors, who have not discovered anything but. U.S. plans not gained the support of all NATO members, leading to the crisis in the North Atlantic Alliance. including despite pressure from France and Germany, Poland supported the United States. Announced attack triggered a violent reaction opinion – February 15, 2003 by the world through the anti demonstrations, which – as estimated – in Europe alone, built more than 10 million people (by police in London the number of demonstrators was 3 million 750 thousand. To 4 million). It is estimated that this was the largest global protest in the history of the World.

20 March 2003 in the early hours of U.S. and British planes to beat targets in Baghdad. The next day, on the territory of the coalition forces entered Iraq. President Bush announced the start of operation “Iraqi Freedom”. In the war, U.S. troops were involved, Great Britain, Poland and Australia and at sea to support them, Denmark and Spain. In the north of Iraq aliantom helped kurdyjscy insurgents winning city Mosul.





Language

12 10 2008
The official languages are Arabic and Kurdish, the other, there are minority languages (Turkmen, Chaldean, others). Arabic is supported by all Iraqis understood that before 1991 have enjoyed school. Since the autonomy of the Kurdish territories in 1991, among the younger Bevölikerung, particularly in areas affected by the PUK have been governed (Sulaimaniya) the Arabic lost something. English is used by educated people in northern and central Iraq and in the big cities understood.




Islamic Caliphate

24 08 2008

Beginning in the seventh century AD, Islam spread to what is now Iraq during the Islamic conquest of Persia, led by the Muslim Arab commander Khalid ibn al-Walid. Under the Rashidun Caliphate, the prophet Mohammed‘s cousin and son-in-law Ali moved his capital to Kufa “fi al-Iraq” when he became the fourth caliph. The Umayyad Caliphate ruled the province of Iraq from Damascus in the 7th century. (However, eventually there was a separate, independent Caliphate of Cordoba.)

The Abbasid Caliphate built the city of Baghdad in the 8th century as their capital, and it became the leading metropolis of the Arab and Muslim world for five centuries. Baghdad was the largest multicultural city of the Middle Ages, peaking at a population of more than a million, and was the centre of learning during the Islamic Golden Age. The Mongols destroyed the city during the sack of Baghdad in the 13th century.





Name

20 06 2008

The origin of the name Iraq is disputed. There are several suggested origins for the name. One dates to the Sumerian city of Uruk (or Erech)[6] ; another maintains according to Professor Wilhelm Eilers, The name al-‘Irāq, for all its Arabic appearance, is derived from Middle Persian erāq “lowlands”.

Under the Persian Sassanid dynasty, there was a region called “Erak Arabi,” referring to the part of the south western region of the Persian Empire that is now part of southern Iraq. The name Al-Iraq was used by the Arabs themselves, from the 6th century, for the land Iraq covers.

The Arabic pronunciation is [ʕiˈrɑːq]. In English, the name is pronounced as either [ɪ.ˈɹɑ(ː)k] ( the only pronunciation listed in the Oxford English Dictionary) or [ɪ.ˈɹæk]] (listed first by MQD).





When to Go

16 05 2008

If you don’t want to wilt, avoid summer in Iraq as it’s fiercely hot (May to September); the average summer temperature in Baghdad is 34°C and in Basra 37°C, but daytime temperatures can soar well above that. The north is slightly cooler, while in the south there’s debilitatingly high humidity. Winter can be cold and the mountains can become covered with snow. The average winter temperature in Baghdad is 11°C and in Basra 14°C.